• This involves taking the picture of the retina, paying attention to the part of the retina suspected to be diseased or abnormal.
  • The optic disc- glaucoma , atrophy
    The macular – hole, degeneration, swelling
  • Other part- detachment, pigments, bleeding, blockage of blood vessels
Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA)
  • FFA is an investigative procedure done to examine the blood circulation in the retina and choroid.
  • It uses a special dye and specialized camera.

Diseases where FFA is indicated are:

  1. Diabetic Retinopathy
  2. Occlusion of vessels e.g vein and artery
  3. Swellings of retina e.g optic disc


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